Added: Micole Jent - Date: 10.09.2021 00:40 - Views: 37859 - Clicks: 7130
When you have symptoms, such as abdominal pain, back pain, frequent or painful urination; sometimes as part of a health examination, pregnancy check-up, hospital admission, or pre-surgical work-up. Start to urinate, let some urine fall into the toilet, then collect one to two ounces of urine in the container provided, then void the rest into the toilet.
Online or over the phone, no doctor's referral needed. Most test sent directly to you in days. A urinalysis is a group of physical, chemical, and microscopic tests. Urine is produced by the kidneys, two fist-sized organs located on either side of the spine at the bottom of the ribcage. The kidneys filter wastes out of the blood, help regulate the amount of water in the body, and conserve proteins, electrolytes , and other compounds that the body can reuse.
Anything that is not needed is eliminated in the urine, traveling from the kidneys through ureters to the bladder and then through the urethra and out of the body. Urine is generally yellow and relatively clear, but each time a person urinates, the color, quantity, concentration, and content of the urine will be slightly different because of varying constituents. Some examples include glucose, protein, bilirubin, red blood cells, white blood cells, crystals, and bacteria.
They may be present because:. A microscopic examination is typically performed when there is an abnormal finding on the visual or chemical examination, or if a healthcare practitioner specifically orders it. One to two ounces of urine is collected in a clean container. A sufficient sample is required for accurate .
Urine for a urinalysis can be collected at any time. In some cases, a first morning sample may be requested because it is more concentrated and more likely to detect abnormalities. For this, it is important to clean the genital area before collecting the urine. Bacteria and cells from the surrounding skin can contaminate the sample and interfere with the interpretation of test . With women, menstrual blood and vaginal secretions can also be a source of contamination. Women should spread the labia of the vagina and clean from front to back; men should wipe the tip of the penis.
If it will be longer than an hour between collection and transport time, then the urine should be refrigerated or a preservative may be added. The urinalysis is a set of screening tests that can detect some common diseases. A urinalysis is comprised of several chemical, microscopic and visual examinations used to detect cells, cell fragments and substances such as crystals or casts in the urine associated with the various conditions listed above.
It can detect abnormalities that might require follow-up investigation and additional testing. Often, substances such as protein or glucose will begin to appear in the urine before people are aware that they may have a problem. In people diagnosed with diseases or conditions, such as kidney disease or diabetes, the urinalysis may be used in conjunction with other tests, such as urine albumin , to follow treatment. A urinalysis may sometimes be ordered when a person has a routine wellness exam, is admitted to the hospital, or will undergo surgery, or when a woman has a pregnancy checkup.
A urinalysis will likely be ordered when a person sees a healthcare practitioner complaining of symptoms of a urinary tract infection or other urinary system problem, such as kidney disease. Some s and symptoms may include:.
Urinalysis can have many interpretations. Abnormal findings are a warning that something may be wrong and should be evaluated further. Generally, the greater the concentration of the atypical substance, such as greatly increased amounts of glucose, protein, or red blood cells, the more likely it is that there is a problem that needs to be addressed. However, the do not tell the healthcare practitioner exactly what the cause of the finding is or whether it is a temporary or chronic condition.
A normal urinalysis does not guarantee that there is no illness. Some people will not release elevated amounts of a substance early in a disease process, and some will release them sporadically during the day, which means that they may be missed by a single urine sample. In very dilute urine, small quantities of chemicals may be undetectable.
To see an example of a urinalysis lab report, see this sample report. There are many factors that can affect or interfere with the tests that comprise a urinalysis. Give a complete history to your healthcare practitioner, including any prescribed or over-the-counter medications or supplements you may be taking. If you are a women, be sure to tell your healthcare practitioner whether you are menstruating. Because this is a general screening test, time of collection is usually not important, although a first morning void may be preferred because it is more concentrated.
However, if your healthcare provider is looking for a specific finding, you may be asked to collect a sample at a specific time. Some may also be able to provide microscopic examinations. Sometimes, if abnormal are found on the visual or chemical exams, your urine sample may be sent to a laboratory for the microscopic exam. Alternatively, your sample may be sent to a laboratory for a full urinalysis. Kits to perform a full urinalysis are not available because the test requires special equipment and technical skills. However, some commercial testing strips can be purchased at a pharmacy to perform part of the chemical examination, such as urine pH, urine glucose, and urine ketones.
These can be s of what substances may be present in the urine. They are interpreted in conjunction with obtained during the chemical and microscopic examinations to confirm what substances are present. Urine can be a variety of colors, most often shades of yellow, from very pale or colorless to very dark or amber. Unusual or abnormal urine colors can be the result of a disease process, several medications e. For example, some people can have red-colored urine after eating beets; the color is from the natural pigment of beets and is not a cause for worry.
However, red-colored urine can also occur when blood is present in the urine and can be an indicator of disease or damage to some part of the urinary system. Another example is yellow-brown or greenish-brown urine that may be a of bilirubin in the urine see The Chemical Examination section. Urine clarity refers to how clear the urine is. Usually, laboratorians report the clarity of the urine using one of the following terms: clear, slightly cloudy, cloudy, or turbid.
Substances that cause cloudiness but that are not considered unhealthy include mucus, sperm and prostatic fluid, cells from the skin, normal urine crystals, and contaminants such as body lotions and powders. Other substances that can make urine cloudy, like red blood cells, white blood cells, or bacteria , indicate a condition that requires attention.
To perform the chemical examination, most clinical laboratories use commercially prepared test strips with test p that have chemicals impregnated into them. The laboratorian dips the strip into urine, chemical reactions change the colors of the p within seconds to minutes, and the laboratorian determines the result for each test.
The degree of color change on a test pad can give an estimate of the amount of substance present. For example, a slight color change in the test pad for protein may indicate a small amount of protein present in the urine whereas a deep color change may indicate a large amount. The chemical examination is often done in conjunction with or may be followed by a microscopic examination of the urine if there are any abnormal .
from both sets of tests are then considered together for interpretation. Urine specific gravity is a measure of urine concentration. This test simply indicates how concentrated the urine is. Specific gravity measurements are a comparison of the amount of substances dissolved in urine as compared to pure water. If there were no substances present, the specific gravity of the urine would be 1.
Since all urine has some substances in it, a urine SG of 1. If a person drinks excessive quantities of water in a short period of time or gets an intravenous IV infusion of large volumes of fluid, then the urine specific gravity may be very close to that of water. The upper limit of the test pad, a specific gravity of 1. Knowing the urine concentration helps healthcare practitioners understand whether a urine specimen they are evaluating is the best one to detect a particular substance.
For example, if they are looking for very small amounts of protein, a concentrated morning urine specimen would be the best sample. The urine is usually slightly acidic, about pH 6, but can range from 4. The kidneys play an important role in maintaining the acid-base balance of the body. Therefore, any condition that produces acids or bases in the body, such as acidosis or alkalosis , or the ingestion of acidic or basic foods can directly affect urine pH.
Some of the substances dissolved in urine will precipitate out to form crystals when the urine is acidic; others will form crystals when the urine is basic. By modifying urine pH through diet or medications, the formation of these crystals can be reduced or eliminated. This test screens for bilirubin in the urine.
Bilirubin is not present in the urine of normal, healthy individuals. It is a waste product that is produced by the liver from the hemoglobin of RBCs that are broken down and removed from circulation. It becomes a component of bile , a fluid that is released into the intestines to aid in food digestion. In certain liver diseases, such as biliary obstruction or hepatitis , excess bilirubin can build up in the blood and is eliminated in urine. The presence of bilirubin in urine is an early indicator of liver disease and can occur before clinical symptoms such as jaundice develop.
The of this test will be considered along with the result of urobilinogen below. If positive, the healthcare practitioner will likely follow up with other laboratory tests, such as a liver panel , to help establish a diagnosis. For more information, see the articles on Bilirubin and Liver Disease. This test screens for urobilinogen in the urine. The are considered along with those for urine bilirubin above.Urine test results what do they mean
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What Is a Urinalysis and How Is the Test Done?